- Amps are the number of electrons flowing
- Volts are the force with which electrons are flowing (a bit like tilting them down hill - a height difference)
- Resistance is created by a device designed to slow the passage of amps
- Resistors are used to protect other devices from too rapid a flow of amps, they are also used to control the charging or discharging rates of capacitors
- Earth can be to the negative terminal (common) of a cell or to an object more massive than the circuit like, well... the Earth !
- capacitors come in two types but both are used to store charge at a specified rate to be used as timers, smoothers (replenishing tanks) or blockers of DC. They will 'pass' AC but not really - the plates either side of a capacitor are actually separated by an insulator and the device relies on repulsion of charged particles to get any effect.
Capacitors resist voltage
- Inductors are coils of wire which store energy in a magnetic field - they resist change in current (up or down) They can be used similarly to capacitors
- Transistors are made of semi conductive material which means they can behave as switches or valves (amplifiers.) A three way wiring means that a low voltage base wire can control a larger voltage through a collector/emitter wire.
- Transistors combined with capacitors, variable resistors/capacitors and inductors (field generators) can create oscilators, which cause a vibrating signal which can be translated to air via a speaker cone.
There are other things like variable resistors, variable capacitors, various switches and diodes (one way gates) which can be used to refine a circuit, rectify AC, tune frequencies in or out.
I'm on to integrated circuitry next - decision making devices on silicon chips comprising much of the above in industry format.
I've looked at lots of equations - like Ohm's, Kirchoff's, Joule's ... reactance, capacitance, resistance, emf, series, parallel... some of them suspiciously interrelated and convenient.
Stuff which will help me to shape electricity.
I don't understand much of it and I'm sure some boffins here will correct me on what I've written above, but building a project and setting about it with a meter is immensely satisfying and it doesn't smell or create too much mess - plus (above all things) it's cheap !
I dislike having things like mobile phones and not being able to understand how they work otherwise it may as well be voodoo to me.